Act of Decolonization #12: Culture, Kuttura, Kutula, Kustumbre, Pengga'

Last month I had the honor of presenting twice at the Tetset Konfrensian Chamorro in Saipan.

I wrote about my presentation on a panel on militarization and political status in the Marianas Islands in my post "Shiro, Sakman yan Fino' Chamoru: Pa'go Giya Guahan."

My other presentation was a solo one, where I was put in charge of a session on "national identity" and Chamorros. The description (which I didn't write) was as follows:

Identifikan Nasionat:

Komu i tinituhon i ManChamorro sina ha' un rastreha mas ki kuatro mit anos tatte sigun i estoria i ManChamorro komu un grupu ha' manparehu na lenguahi, para na kustumbre yan parehu na rasa. Gi kinlamten-ta mo'na obligasion-ta para u ta susteni i hinengge-mu put Hagu mismo.

There were a number of different directions that I could have taken this discussion. But given the importance of issues of preserving and sustaining Chamorro culture to the conference, I decided to intervene at that point.

In my presentation which I'll be posting below (which is in Chamorro), I highlighted the need to expand our ideas of culture, in order to sustain ourselves as a people, not just culturally, but more importantly politically.

In Guam (and to some extent the CNMI) today, there are three different types of cultural expression and assertion, and whichever we chose to emphasis and privilege in our lives defines where the limits of our political life and possibility are. These three types are colonial, multi-cultural and anti-colonial. Each of these different types dictates what Chamorro culture is and more importantly what it does, and how it affects the world around it, what positive or negative impact it has.

"Colonial" implies an absolute suckiness, this is the view of Chamorro culture which is very narrow and negative. It is defined by the gaze of the colonizer, what he perceives Chamorro culture to be, backwards, marginal, dying, impure, stupid, and also is understood as hopelessly dependent. The other aspect of the colonial version of Chamorro culture is that it has become an effect of the colonizer, that it exists as a footnote to the United States, or is just a lucky appendage to it. The "colonial" impulse in expressions/assertions of Chamorro culture are the most negative and fearsome, they basically define Chamorro culture as something disgustingly from the past, which can destroy the present, and also place at the center of Chamorro being, an undying, eternal and necessary loyalty to the United States for all things.

"Multi-cultural" is a step up from colonial. In that Chamorro culture is no longer solely negative things, but is now a thing of beauty and represents a positive, noble essence. Under multi-culturalism, Chamorro culture is not another beautiful part of some larger, usually American whole, a beautiful tapestry of all the different colors, shades and hues that make up today's American family. Here, certain aspects of Chamorro culture, that which is considered to be more pure or more useful in representing Chamorro history and Chamorro life to non-Chamorros are highlighted. So in this universe, Chamorro culture is mainly those things which are positively unique to Chamorros, or which can help impress non-Chamorros and aren't too difficult to explain. Chamorro culture here is still very apolitical, as its presence in that American tapestry is dependent upon not rocking the boat. But the Chamorro here is not without agency or activism. The Chamorro, in some ways, now feels equal to others in the United States and is capable of defending itself, even if in only weak ways against cultural death, destruction and some exploitation or racism.

"Anti-colonial" or decolonial is the form of culture that I am most interested in. Its the culture which is not content or static, but exists to challenge the existing order, the existing structure of ideas and value which oppresses or defines what is and isn't culture. This is the most active and critical form, "anti-colonial" culture is violent, it is like fire, chispas, it does not sit still but constantly wonders around the island. Anti-colonial culture isn't about dependency or equality, but is a force which pushes the colonized to see themselves not as the same, as a part of the colonizer, or even equal, but as something which can surpass the colonizer, do better than them. We see this most clearly in Fanon's Wretched of the Earth, where his plan for decolonization is not some retreat into pre-colonial roots, or one which sees the goal of decolonization as rooted in fidelity to some authentic past or cultural purity. National culture for Fanon is the force which pushes the colonized to see through their colonial present, to break free from the colonizer's gaze, to see themselves as capable of being independent, self-sustaining, and free, and at the more abstract, global level, as more capable of carrying any universal humanistic legacy. Fanon ends his text with that cry, that the colonized people of the world take up that banner and bring to life the humanistic ideas that Europe gave lip service too, but in their treatment of their colonies, easily forgot.

In my talk, I didn't explicitly mention any of these points, except in that I pleaded with those listening to take seriously our relationship to the ideas of our culture. To not simply accept those labels for what is really Chamorro or what isn't. But to interrogate and analyze where those ideas come from and also what they do to us, the people who bear the burden, the limits, and are forced to live those ideas.

Before I continue, I'll share with you the abstract for my presentation:

Identifikon Nasionat: I Kutturå-ta yan i Masagåyi-ta
Fina’nu’i as Michael Lujan Bevacqua

Meggai ta hungok put kutturan Chamorro gi este na konfrensia, ya maolek este. Debi di ta fanguentos put i kutturå-ta, debi di ta espiha hafa taimanu para ta na’utas yan na’ma’ok i kutturå-ta. Yan gi uttimo, debi di ta diskuti taimanu siña ta adapta yan aomenta gui’. Lao guaha peligru annai tit a tungo’ ginnen månu i idea siha na ta u’usa para ta “define” hafa mismo yan ti mismo i kutturå-ta, yan ginnen månu, ginnen hayi na tintanos? Sa’ yanggen un atan i estoriå-ta, pi’ot på’go na tiempo, annok na ti mismo iyo-ta.

Gi este na fina’nu’i-hu bai hu sångan mas put este, ya bai hu “argue” na debi di mas ki kosas antigu i kutturå-ta. I kutturå-ta, taibali anggen ta usa para eskusa na ti siña ta ma’gåsi maisa hit, pat ti siña ta fa’maolek i tano’-ta. En fin, i kutturå-ta debi di ayu na fuetsa, i chumochonnek hit mo’na, i chumochonnek hit para ta gubetnan maisa hit, i chumochonnek hit para ta fanbanidosu ni’ Hita.

To help illustrate what I'm talking about, let me give you an example.

For instance, if you believe that all the "authentic" parts of Chamorro culture are found in the distant past, the pure moments of Chamorro life prior to Spanish colonization, then you, your ideas, and what you assume is possible/impossible, authentic/inauthentic for Chamorros, has a huge impact on what the Chamorro can and can't do, is capable and incapable of doing today. In my talk I was referring to, without mentioning them, so many of the people who were attending that conference, who help perpetuate very narrow conceptions and definitions of what is Chamorro culture, what is Chamorro identity, which lead to the impossibility today of Chamorros possessing a decent, critical or even active sense of national identity. This will only come about, when Chamorro culture isn't reduced to simple, static, pre-contact practices or images, but is actually willing to accept and live out that well-worn, but rarely believed truism that "all cultures change."

Estague i pinagat-hu:


Fine’nina, malago yu’ na bai hu na’i hamyo i inagradesi-hu put este na oppotunidat ni’ en na’i yu’ para bai hu kuentos put kosas gof impottånte nu Hita todu.

Sigundo, bai hu gagao i inasi’in-miyu kontiempo put i manera ni’ bai hu fa’nu’i på’go, gi fino’ Ingles yan gi fino’ Chamoru. Maolekña yu’ tumuge’ yan tumaitai kinu kumuentos yan humungok gi i lenguåhi-ta, pues i fina’nu’i-hu på’go, lamita gi fino’ Ingles yan fino’ Chamoru. Este gi fino’ Chamoru hu tuge’ kontiempo sa’ yomamahlao yu’ fumino’ Chamoru gi me’nan i lahyan na taotao.
Yan lokkue’, umeskuekuela yu’ gi lagu, giya San Diego esta singko años maloffan yan i humuyongña na lumababa yan lumamafñas i Chamoru-hu. På’go, unu ha’ taotao ya-hu kumuentusi gi fino’ Chamoru, ya ayu i hagå-hu, sa’ nene ha’, ya ti u kase’ yu’ pat u sangåni na gof lachi yu’.

Lao put hu gof hongge gi este na konfrensensia yan i guinife muna’dodokko’ gui’ bai hu petsigi gi este bunito na lenguåhi-ta. Sen magåhet i idea-ña este na dinaña’, na i Chamoru siha debi di u ma’gåsi i lina’la’-ñiha yan u usa i lenguåhin-ñiha para u sångan yan diskuti todu i umafefekta i lina’la’-ñiha.

Ta’lo, asi’i yu’ yanggen ti hu komprende ilek-miyu giya Guahu, ya hu gagao na en ripiti i sinangan-miyu gi fino’ Ingles.

Komu apmam yu’ na estudiånte giya Guahan yan California ya fihu uniku iyo-ku “perspective” put i estoriå-ta yan i kutturå-ta put i inestudiå-hu. Para iyo-ku research, bai hu aliligao yan hohokka’ todu kosas siña hu sodda’ gi lepblo, the internet, the news media, gaseta, movies, maseha hafa na lugat, put Guahan yan Chamorro. Ya hu u’usa este siha na materiat para bai hu tungo’ i respuesta para i finaisen siha ni’ umafefekta todu i Chamoru siha, maskiseha ti ta faifaisen maisa hit.

Esta hu tuge’ dos na papet Masters Thesis giya California yan Guahan. Kada unu put un impottånte na finaisen gi lina’la’ Chamoru:

I fine’nina na thesis-hu: “Hafa tainmanu i Chamorron Guahan na mampos manpatriotic yan mamfiet gi I United States guini gi un gof kadada na tiempo?”

I mina’dos: “Sa’ hafa na meggai na Chamorro giya Guahan, ti manmalago na u konsedera pat u diskuti put “decolonization” achokka’ annok na cocolony ha’ i islan-ñiha.”

Este un dos na tahdong na kueston siha put lina’la’ giya Guahan, ni’ tåya’ fuera di didide’ na taotao taiguini giya Hita, fumaifaisen.Todu tumungo’ guaha possible na ineppe’ para este siha na dongkulo na kueston, lao fihu ti manggof maolek pat dinache’. I respuesta put “dependency” pat “patriotism” yan ‘guinaiya” huyuyong ha’, ti nahong tinahdong. Ti ma sangagåni hit put i sistema gi oriyå-ta.

Estague hu kekecho’gue gi i che’cho’-hu: Hu chule’ este siha na mandongkalu na finaisen, ni’ guaha nai gof mappot lokkue’, ya hu espiha i ti a’annok na kontestashon pat ineppe’, ni’ fihu mahafot. På’go na ha’åni bai hu kecho’gue este ta’lo, lao put i kutturå-ta. Bai hu diskuti på’go put hafa i kutturå-ta? Lao mismo bai hu diskuti put ginnen månu na ta chule’ i idea-ta siha put hafa i mismo kutturå-ta yan hafa ti mismo i kutturå-ta.

Antes di bai hu tutuhun, bai hu sångan, na taotao Guahan yu’ ya todu i inestudiå-hu put Chamorro siha giya Guahan pat Chamorron Guahan gi lagu. Anggen ilek-hu “Chamorro” solu hu mentona i CNMI, mismo hu sasångan solamente put Chamorron Guahan.

Meggai hu hungok put kutturan Chamorro, i kutturå-ta, gi guini na konfrensia, ya maolek este. Debi di ta fanguentos put i kutturå-ta, debi di ta espiha hafa taimanu para ta na’utas yan na’ma’ok i kutturå-ta. Yan gi uttimo, debi di ta diskuti taimanu siña ta adapta yan aomenta gui’.

I kutturå-ta. Ahe’ ti kosas ha’, alåhas ha’ pat baila siha, lao put i hafa taimanu ta li’e i tano’ gi oriyå-ta, ya manu gi hinasso-ta, ta li’e hit gi tiempo, gi i tano’, ya gi uttimo, hafa kinapås-ta komo taotao, para ta cho’gue. I kutturå-ta yan i idea-ta siha put i kutturå-ta fuma’titinas i chi-ta komo taotao. I kuttura, yan yan hafa hinasso-ta pat kinemprende-ta put este, guaha fuetså-ña para u chonnek hit pat para u na’para hit. Yanggen i idea-ta siha put i kutturan Chamoru mampos dikike’ pat takpappa’, pues siña lokkue’ Hita ta hasso na mandikike’ pat manakpappa’ hit komo taotao.

Tåya’ peligru gi ta sångan meggai put i kutturå-ta, ta cho’gue este kosaki siña ta tungo’ mas put i bula na diferentes na klasin Chamoru hinengge yan kustrumbre. Lao i peligru gaige annai ti ta tungo’ ginnen månu i idea siha na ta u’usa para ta “define” hafa mismo yan ti mismo i kutturå-ta, yan ginnen månu, ginnen hayi na tintanos? Sa’ yanggen un atan i estoriå-ta, pi’ot på’go na tiempo, annok na ti mismo iyo-ta.

Kada Chamoru diferensiao gi hinasson-ñiha put i kutturå-ña yan diferensiao hinengge-ña put hafa i kuttura, manu na ma sodda’ yan ngai’an na gumaige. Sigun gi hinasso-mu put i kutturan Chamoru, kao manu pat ngai’an, kao tahdong pat didide’ ha’, i Chamoru magåhet pat ti magåhet, malingu pat masodda’.

Bai hu na’ekungok hamyo ni’ sinangan Chamoru ni’ muna’anok hafa na impottånte na ta diskuti este. Hu hokka’ este siha ginnen iyo-ku interviews para iyo-ku Master’s Thesis gi Micronesian Studies.

"My boy, without America were just boka, kichi maigo. Do you think we can survive on that alone?"

"The United States has built the strongest, greatest economy in the world, what have Chamorros done in the same history? We made canoes and built latte stones…I think it’s obvious where our future lies."

"You people want to be independent? You want everyone to speak Chamorro? To be Chamorros and not Americans! Well I say …if being Chamorro means using the outhouse and wearing loincloths, then my kids will not be Chamorro."

"I joined the Navy when I was 17, left the island...if I hadn’t joined the Navy right now I’d either be fat or dead…The culture is not what it used to be, its all food stamps and low rider trucks. Can’t live like that."

"…how can we succeed with the influence of longhaired, shirtless men with ancient ideas running our culture? It may have been feasible before the 16th century, but it is impossible today. Are we wanting to progress or are we looking to regress?"

"…a Guam military that will fight off the Chinese with spears and sling stones."

"We were in trouble in WWII. The United States liberated us and set us right and then went home. Now, it’s a war all over again. Except this time it’s us who are the enemy. Corruption. Ice. Welfare. Suicide. We need them to liberate us again."

"We were a proud people who understood the land and the sea. Lao umbree ga’chong, how are you gonna fight terrorists? With fisga? Or with a fosinos? We can’t do it on our own."

"Lahi-hu, without America, we’re nothing."

Gi todu este siha na deklarashon ta li’e na gi i hinasson este siha na Chamoru, ti klåru hafa i kutturan-ñiha, gof aburido.

Para este na Chamoru siha, i kutturan Chamorro, ahe’ ti kolekshon todu i che’cho’ I Chamoru gi manmaloffan yan på’go. Sigun este siha mampos ma’i’ot i kutturan Chamoru. I kutturå-ta, mismo kosas antigu pat kosas båba.

Dos punto siña ta li’e ginnen este siha na sinangan, ni debi di ta repåra, sa’ i kutturan Chamoru, ahe’ ti listan i che’cho ha’, lao fuetsa ni’ ha na’tungo’ hit ni’ Chamoru siha, hafa siña hit yan hafa ti siña.

Fine’nina: i Chamoru ma “divide” gi båba yan maolek, magåhet yan fatso siha na pidåsu ginnen tiempo yan Estoria. Todu i pidåsu siha ni’ ginnen i maloffan na tiempon Guahan, manmagåhet, gasgas, fakto, maolek, manmatua. I kosas på’go, todu mambåba, aplacha, disonesto, atburutao, ti magåhet na Chamorro, magåhet na Tagalo, magåhet na Españot.

Mina’dos: Humuyong klåru ginnen este i maolek yan båba siha gi kutturan Chamoru, na ti siña este ma usa para u macho’gue i gubetnamento, uma abansa i ekonomia, pat uma fa’tinas i lai siha. I kutturan Chamoru, ti mismo mafa’tinas para på’go na tiempo, ya ti siña ma usa para ta gubetna i islå-ta siha, ya put este, debi di ta dipende gi otro (pi’ot i United States), ya i kutturan-ñiha u chine’gue, hafa ti siña hit.

I kutturan Chamoru gi mas maolek na estao-ña, latte, galaide, sakman yan otro ginnen i manmaloffan na lina’la’ Chamoru. Ya gi i mas båba, i kutturan ginagu, corruption, nepotism, ya Guiya dumistrotrosa i islå-ta siha på’go.

Este siha na idea put i kutturå-ta siha, ahe’ ti mismo iyo-ta, achokka’ meggai na Chamoru ma aksepta yan ma hongge na minagahet. Este siha na idea mismo ginnen i masagåyi-ta, mismo “colonial.” Este na idea mismo ginnen I hinasson i taotao Uropa yan i Amerikånu ni’ ha hahasso na taibali i Chamoru yan otro na mannatibu siha. Apmam na tiempo esta di ta hungok yan ta li’e ayu siha ya esta på’go ilek-ta na magåhet yan hinasso-ta ayu. Manchenglong hit gi este na colonial na hinasso, lao i meggaiña na Chamoru ti ma li’li’e este.

I fundashon este siha na idea kulan i manmagåhet na Chamoru manggaige antes di u fanmåtto i Españot ya maseha håyi ilek-ña na Chamoru gui’ på’go, Guiya ti puro na Chamoru, lao båba na kopia ha’. Todu i minaolek i taotao-ta manmalingu ya ayu ha’ i archives Españot yan i Museums nai siña manmasodda’. I Chamoru siha manginedi ni’ chinan Estoria, kontodu i hinasson-ñiha.

Achokka’ I Chamoru desde hagas ma adapta yan tulaika i kuttraun-ñiha, kulang manmaleffa hit på’go, pues ta duba na manmagåhet hit.

I hiniyong este, na achokka’ siña ta li’e hit gi halom i kuttura na banda giya Guahan, tit a sodda’ hit gi i pulitikåt na banda i lina’la’-ta. Gi ayu na banda, fihu ta li’e Inamerikånu, ya ta aksepta ya ayu todu mismo iyo-ñiha.

Buente ti ta konfotme gi este na sinangån-hu. Lao kontat ki ta aksepta ayu na idea na i magåhet na Chamoru manla’la’ gi i manantigu na tiempo, ta kadena iyo-ta identities gi ayu na tiempo. Ya ta puni na siña umadapta pat tumulaika i Chamoru. Gi uttimo, ta na’i ha’ i Amerikånu siha, ni’ i tiempo-ta på’go yan chi-ña i kutturå-ta.

I resuttå-ña este, na ta sotta i “political questions” put i islå-ta para i United States, ya ta usa i tiningo’-ñiha yan i kutturan-ñiha para ta ma’gasi maisa hit. Ta suponi na para ta na’fattoigue i mas maolek para i gubetno-ta, debi di Siha u fanma’gas.

Hita, ta li’e este klåru gi i hemplo i kinemprenden i taotao put I United States giya Guahan. Gi todu i mangcolonial na lugat, i tano’ madivide gi dos na klasi, kosas siha ni’ kuttura yan kosas siha ni’ pulitikat. I kuttura iyon i Mangcolonized. I pulitikåt iyon I Mangcolonizer.

I Chamoru giya Guahan guaha kutturan-ñiha, buente båba, buente maolek, lao guaha. Mandongkalu na familian-ñiha, dongkalu giput-ñiha, mambaila, manmanganta, guaha alahås-ñiha, artifacts. Este i bandan Chamoru giya Guahan, puru ha’ kuttura.

I United States buente, tåya’ kutturan-ñiha giya Guahan taiguihi ha’, Guiya i dueñu i pulitikåt na banda. Guiya muna’dokko’ giya Guahan todu i kosas ni’ muna’possible i “structuren” Guahan. I kuttura ta suponi iyon i Chamoru, lao todu i “structure” i isla, democracy, economy, laws, society, government, education, technology, ta suponi na i United States chumule’ mågi.

Meggai na Chamoru manmacho’cho’cho’ gi todu este, lao ti Siha, yan ti i kutturan-ñiha muna’fanmacho’cho’cho siha, ti Siha muna’possible siha. Actualmente, gi minagahet, anggen un taitai i Guam PDN na website pat un ekungok nu K57 giya Guahan, todu tiempo ma sasångan guihi na isao i Chamoru ha’ na manmayulang todu giya Guahan.

Pues este na division gi i lina’la’ yan estorian Guahan kumekeilek-ña na i manma’pos, i manmaloffan na tiempo iyon Chamoru. Ya kontat ki na ta suponi na i bandan pulitikåt iyon i Amerikånu, ta na’lamon siha para u diside para manu hit ta’lo. Ta na’i siha i abilidåt para u detitmina hafa taimanu mas maolek para u gubetno i islå-ta, u fa’nå’gue i famagu’on-ta yan para u prutehi i tano’-ta yan i tasi.

I fundamenton-ña este yan meggai na Chamoru humongge este na idea: Anggen malago hao mangkamyo niyok pat mamahan sinahi, faisen yan angokko i Chamoru. Lao anggen malago hao na un abansa i ekonomian Guahan, faisen i Amerikånu. Ya maskiseha mamaisen hao Chamoru, anggen “magåhet na Chamoru” gui’ debi di hafa nina’i hao as Guiya, put kamyo, sinahi pat otro na kosas antigu. Yanggen i ineppe-ña put taxes, development, laws pat otro na ti “cultural” na kosas, ti magåhet na Chamoru gui’.

Este na division entre i kuttura yan i pulitikåt, antes yan på’go, gumogode hit. Ya lokkue’ ha na’fanhongge’ hit na Hita na taotao ti mannahong hit. Ti mangkabåles hit. Ta li’e hit ginnen i matan otro taotao siha ni’ ha hongge na ti siña ta ayudan maisa hit. Ya i hineggen-ñiha manlachi hit sa’ ta hongge’ lokkue’.

I punto-hu go todu este bula na kuentos-hu: I kutturå-ta, taibali anggen ta usa para eskusa na ti siña ta ma’gåsi maisa hit, pat ti siña ta fa’maolek i tano’-ta.

I kutturå-ta, debi di u ma silebra yan uma prutehi, lao debi di lokkue’ ta ripara hafa i chi-ña siha, ya faisen maisa hit, ginnnen manu este na chi-ña siha, ya kao manpinepongle hit ni’ este siha? Mungga hit po’lo i gobetnamenton i islå-ta siha gi i hinasson i otro na taotao siha. Ko’lo’lo’ña gi i ideas ni’ manracist.

Nisisita ta “expand” i idea-ta ni’ hafa Chamoru yan hafa ti Chamoru. Ti debi di ta po’lo ha’ hit yan i minagahet-ta gi hafa mo’na ki i finatton i Españot. I kutturå-ta, ha chuchule’ ginnen i manmaloffån-ta, lao ti katnada para u gode hit tåtte.

I kutturå-ta ti siña ha ayu ha’. Debi di mas. Ti unu ha’ na kutturan Chamoru, lao meggai diferentes na klasi. Ya ta na’fanlamen ha’ hit yanggen otro hinasso-ta.

Pues hafa i finakpo’-ku? Hafa dipotsi i kutturå-ta despues di todu i sinangån-hu? Este i uttimo na fino’-hu put este. I kutturå-ta debi di ayu na fuetsa, i chumochonnek hit mo’na, i chumochonnek hit para ta gubetnan maisa hit, i chumochonnek hit para ta fanbanidosu ni’ Hita.

Todu este kumekeilek-ña na kada na måtto nuebu na kosas guini gi i islå-ta siha ginnen lågu. Debi di ta hasso i bidan-ñiha i Mañainå-ta. Ta chule’ este nuebu, ya fa’iyo-ta anggen maolek gui’ para Hita.

Sa’ iyo-ku grandfather Herreron Chamoru, ya ma honra gui’ giya Guahan ya tinakpangi gui’ “Master,” bai hu eksplika este gi i estorian “lulok.”

Annai fine’nina måtto i lilok guini giya i Islas Marianas, ti manmumu pat manyaoyao i Chamoru siha put, anggen ma usa i lilok “kao magåhet na Chamoru pat ahe’?” Ti hinasson-ñiha na mampos delikao pat strikto i kutturan-ñiha na siempre u falingu todu an ma na’halom este gi halom i kuttura.

Instead, ma usa i lilok, ya dumidide’ dumidide’ ma na’suha i cheggai, acho’ yan to’lang annai ma fa’titinas i ramentan-ñiha. Sa’ sigi ha’ i Chamoru umu’usa, yan i sigi ha’ i Chamoru fuma’titinas, yan i lina’la’ Chamoru sinapopotte ni’ este na ramenta siha, siempre Chamoru lokkue’ este na lilok yan este na ramenta.

På’go i islå-ta siha, bula nuebu na kosas, democracy internet, tv, art, literature, air condition yan otro na technology. Sa’ hafa na ti ta hahasso yan dalalalaki i hemplon i mañainå-ta? Sa’ hafa ti ta chuchule’ lokkue’ este para Hita? Sa’ hafa ti ta fa’iyoyo-ta este siha? Sa’ hafa na esta på’go ta hahasso ha’ na iyon Amerika este siha, ya ta nisisita Amerika para ta usa este siha?


brent said…
Anti-Colinial: Same rhetoric as Mugabe.
Its usually the same in any colonial and anti-colonial situation. For instance, the rhetoric was exactly the same prior to and during the American Revolutionary War.

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