Sunday, September 29, 2013

On the Subject of Sohnge

Shieh and Siguenza debate legalization of Marijuana

Guam News - Guam News 
Guam - The Rotary Club of Guam held a debate on the legalization of both medical marijuana and recreational marijuana. Dr. Tom Shieh debated against the legalization while former Chief Justice Pete Siguenza debated for the legalization of both medical and recreational marijuana.

The pros and cons of marijuana were argued today during a debate at the Rotary Club of Guam. Sporting a biker jacket and tattoos the now retired former Guam Supreme Court Chief Justice Pete Siguenza argued for the legalization and regulation of marijuana for both medicinal use and recreational use. He says that the war on drugs has been as much as a failure as the long time repealed prohibition on alcohol.

"We've been at this war on drugs since 1970 that's what more than 40 years and there's no end in site apparently. It's going to keep going the way it is until somebody makes the change, somebody stands up to the prohibitionists, somebody stands up to the temperance league,”

He also argued that the scheduling of drugs is ridiculous. schedule ii includes drugs like pcp, morphine, methamphetamines and cocaine. Schedule one includes extreme hallucinogens like LSD, peyote, mescaline, but for some reason it also includes marijuana. "Marijuana is a schedule one substance and I think that's ridiculous. So if we're gonna rely on, the people are gonna rely on the federal government to let them know what is dangerous and what is not, I suggest they look at this. Marijuana is a schedule one item and here is another point alcohol is no where to be found in any of these schedules nor is nicotine,” said Siguenza.

 Dr. Tom Shieh is against the legalization of marijuana for recreational purposes and he's not convinced of it's use medicinally until he sees more conclusive evidence. "The acute intoxication can impair short term memories impair attention coordination and balance you wouldn't smoke marijuana and go out and drive a car let alone ride a bike or go out into a race track and drive a hot rod you're not going to do that,” said Dr. Shieh. He also argues that the potency of marijuana is increasing significantly compared to the marijuana of the 60's and 70's. "But now you're coming with hybrid plants you're coming with genetically engineered plants these plants are now the potency are very high. Some go up to 20 percent of THC that's in there so when you take a puff of the marijuana the effects of it are pretty high,” said Dr. Shieh.

 As for medicinal use Dr. Shieh says he has yet to see the evidence supporting it's medical benefits. "I wanna see the evidence if not you can sue me for malpractice if I was taking care of a patient and say hey it's your common sense go and smoke marijuana it's gonna decrease your anxiety it's gonna decrease your depression but i have no evidence to show you that it does have those effects. It's called anecdotal. Anecdotal effects are not scientifically based,” said Dr. Shieh.

 Siguenza brought up the fact that CNN's leading medical correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta was once opposed to medical marijuana but after doing more research has since changed his mind and now sees the benefit. "The leading medical correspondent for CNN news changes his mind and he now in public has said I apologize. He says I apologize, I didn't read the material close enough I didn't look at all the other studies that are available from other countries. The FDA response is we didn't study marijuana, why? Because, it's a catch 22, it's an illegal substance,” said Siguenza. The retired Chief Justice also believes that alcohol is far more dangerous than marijuana. "There were 50 thousand deaths on average caused by alcohol each year. Direct deaths from marijuana as far as the material I've read zero none. When was the last time you've ever heard of a domestic violence case where marijuana was involved? None. Alcohol almost all the time, yet we still have alcohol legal,” said Siguenza.

 Dr. Shieh argued that although legalizing marijuana could create more business opportunities . "I almost guarantee you you're gonna have a hundred marijuana stores down the street the entire Tumon is going to have marijuana bars but I think the question here is are you willing to take the risks of intoxication and accidents and the impact on healthcare I can tell you is gonna be in the millions and millions of dollars,” said Dr. Shieh. Siguenza countered saying that marijuana, just like alcohol, would be regulated and it would be illegal to drive under the influence of marijuana.
 "I've never smoked marijuana by the way okay,” said Dr. Shieh “I rest my case," replied retired Justice Siguenza igniting laughter from Rotarians. Today's debate was sparked by the recent introduction of Resolution 201 by Senator Tina Muna Barnes. It's a resolution that supports the decriminalization of marijuana and supports it's medicinal use.


Former chief justice, doctor debate medical marijuana

Posted: Sep 26, 2013 4:57 PM Updated: Sep 26, 2013 7:10 PM
by Ken Quintanilla

Guam - Should marijuana be legalized on Guam? It's a question that's not only been raised in the island community over the past few months but before the Rotary Club of Guam today.
It was exactly one week ago when Dr. Chris Dombrowski spoke before Rotarians on medical marijuana. Today they were once again treated to the subject this time in debate form with another medical professional and a former hand of the law. Former chief justice Peter Siguenza asked Rotarians to evaluate today's arguments and apply common sense and their own experiences, noting, "I urge you to do that and I think you will conclude that medical marijuana and marijuana for social use should be allowed."

As for Dr. Thomas Shieh, he says consider the dangers and consequences of marijuana abuse. "Now marijuana, should we legalize this for recreational use? I don't think so," he said.

Siguenza related the debate on marijuana on learning from past mistakes such as the prohibition of alcohol. He says its been more than 40 years since the war on drugs started with apparently no end in sight only until somebody makes the change. He adds marijuana is labeled as a scheduled one substance joining the ranks of LSD, heroin, peyote and mescaline ahead of some scheduled two substances such as PCP, morphine, methodone and opium.

He further criticizes how alcohol is not even on the schedules despite how addictive it may be, saying, "So ask yourself why is it that alcohol, nicotine and for that matter caffeine are not on scheduled controlled substances and yet marijuana is a Scheduled I substance," he stated.

Dr. Shieh agrees that marijuana should be taken off of Scheduled I and put on Scheduled II so that physicians can study the drug and manufacture it. He does however disagree that just because alcohol is legal so should marijuana. "Well, we already have one harmful chemical out in the public, you don't need another one and as doctors and nurses we see that everyday," he said.

And medically speaking, he further stressed how marijuana is a psychotropic drug meaning the affect goes straight to your brain. "It can impair short memory, impair attention, coordination and balance, you wouldn't smoke marijuana and drive a car let alone ride a bike or go on a race track and drive a hotrod, you're not going to do that," he said.

He adds marijuana can cause hallucinations, dependency, withdrawal and have carcinogens causing cancer. In the long term he says can even lead to addiction. He states the benefits to using marijuana recreationally are simply anictodal affects and are not scientifically based adding when you're in a court of law, it's about evidence not common sense as Siguenza had noted.

Siguenza continued to relate his argument to alcohol saying if alcohol can be legalized with restrictions, why can't marijuana not only for medical use but socially as well. "We are responsible adults we can handle alcohol those who have problems with it, we have measures to deal with that though we're 50 thousand deaths on average directly caused by alcohol each year, direct deaths from marijuana as far as the material that I have read, zero, none," he said.

Shieh meanwhile says while smoking marijuana may not directly kill a person, it does have an even dangerous affect when mixed with alcohol, something he says is a common practice in regards to recreational use. He further discussed the states of Washington and Colorado which recently approved the legalization of marijuana. Not everything is high on life there as he says problems have occurred with conflicts between state and federal law.

He said, "That's going to be a problem for us doctors 1702because we don't want to lose our license the DEA is going to come down on us for prescription violation, etc. they're going to catch us and put us in the jail, we don't want that period."

Rotarians further questioned both speakers such as whether marijuana is more dangerous on the human brain than alcohol to what are the economic consequences should marijuana be legalized. Siguenza says if controlled like alcohol and taxed, it could generate high revenues. Dr. Shieh however says if legalized, he could almost guarantee that marijuana stores could be opening up everywhere adding if its anything like alcohol and the level of impact it has on healthcare, he estimates an affect in the millions of dollars.


Legalizing medical marijuana favored

LOCAL physician Chris Dombrowski told members of the Rotary Club of Guam last week that if medical marijuana were legalized, about 10 or 15 percent of his family practice patients would “do well” with it.

“I would use cannabis the same way that other physicians utilize ... Xanax, valium, Prozac, Cymbalta,” he said. “Cannabis is used as an anti-anxiety agent, for relaxation, for muscle spasticity, as an antidepressant, for insomnia. It is also being used for ADHD – attention deficit disorder – in a self-medicating way.”

A major objection most physicians have is determining a correct and consistent dosage, he said. While traditional physicians are accustomed to prescribing precise doses of most medicines, he said patients could determine their own doses of marijuana.

“You can always take two tokes, wait half an hour to see how you feel,” he said. “Then take two more tokes, and titrate it yourself.”

Dombrowski acknowledges that a problem with the legalization of marijuana is users driving under its influence. “Is there a problem driving under the influence of it? Of course,” he said. “The problem is how do you declare someone intoxicated when they’re under the influence? … Especially since cannabis is fat-soluble. You can smoke a joint today and be sober for the next six days but the cannabis will still be in your system a week from today.”

He said he doesn’t believe in the recreational use of drugs, but that those who use drugs on their own are self-medicating.

Unlike tobacco, no case of lung cancer has ever been attributed to smoking marijuana. And there is some evidence that it protects against brain cancer and breast cancer as well as against Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s disease, he said.

It also has the social benefit of breeding “harmony and friendship,” Dombrowski said. “It does not breed violence.”


Legalization of marijuana on Guam debated in Rotary meeting

WITH both Colorado and Washington recently decriminalizing recreational marijuana, it was only a matter of time before residents on Guam spoke up and joined the conversation.

Dr. Thomas Shieh and former chief justice Peter Charles Siguenza discussed the positive and negative aspects of legalizing marijuana on Guam at the Rotary Club of Guam meeting yesterday.

Shieh argued as an opponent of the legalization of marijuana while Siguenza spoke in favor of lawful regulated marijuana use.

Shieh maintained that marijuana has lasting harmful effects on the human brain and body. The physician listed several effects, including the impairment of one’s short-term memory, coordination and balance, sleep patterns, and addiction. “It is a psychotropic drug. It affects your entire brain,” Shieh said.

Both debaters commonly compared alcohol and marijuana during the discussion.

Siguenza questioned the validity of the harms associated with marijuana versus alcohol. He asserted that individuals who drink alcohol cause more harm than marijuana users do. He cited the violent conduct of people under the influence of both substances. “There were 50,000 hits on average directly caused by alcohol each year. Direct hits from marijuana? Zero. None,” Siguenza said.

“If we’re going to have legalized alcohol, with restrictions, I see no difference between that and marijuana,” Siguenza said.

Gag reflex

Shieh said marijuana use reduces an individual’s gag reflex, which is why the substance is helpful for cancer patients’ nausea during chemotherapy. The same diminished gag reflex may also lead to alcohol poisoning if marijuana and alcohol are jointly consumed. “A lot of college students binge drink and smoke marijuana at the same time. They don’t have their gag reflex, so that’s how they get alcohol poisoning,” the physician said.

Siguenza argued that cannabis was less harmful than substances such as cocaine and morphine, but was still considered more damaging as the federal government has classified it as a schedule 1 substance.

According to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, schedule 1 drugs are “the most dangerous drugs of all the drug schedules with potentially severe psychological or physical dependence.”

Siguenza pointed out that cocaine and morphine are classified as less damaging drugs.


Siguenza stressed that his stance was for the legal use of cannabis for the responsible adult and for the government to tax sales.

“You can have a hundred responsible people and have one irresponsible person who can come in and cause a lot of harm, and that affects society,” Shieh said.

“Why hold responsible adults accountable for one irresponsible adult’s actions. Treat these people, get them help and leave the rest of us alone,” Siguenza replied.

Shieh also commented on the possibility of widespread cannabis use if the drug is legalized. “When Sen. Tina Muña-Barnes passes the bill for legalized marijuana, how many marijuana stores do you think will pop up? The entire Tumon will have marijuana bars, probably,” the physician said.

The debate comes on the heels of Sen. Tina Muña-Barnes’ resolution, introduced last month, to decriminalize the controlled substance.

The senator was at the debate and clarified the intent of her bill: “When the resolution was introduced, we looked at three approaches. One was medical relief, the other was having law enforcement focus on harsher crimes, and the last one was decriminalization – not putting someone in jail for a single possession,” Barnes said.

Amid questions and comments from the audience, Shieh said he had not tried marijuana before.

“Well, there’s my case,” Siguenza replied, good-heartedly.


Residents Want Marijuana Legalized
Dance Aoki
Pacific Daily News

Most of the residents who spoke at a hearing yesterday called for the legalization of marijuana for medicinal use.

The controversial issue of decriminalizing marijuana was opened for discussion during a hearing at the Guam Legislature yesterday afternoon.

Resolution 201, introduced by Sen. Tina Muña Barnes, D-Mangilao, calls for the decriminalization of marijuana.

Those who submitted testimony advocated for medical uses of the drug to relieve symptoms of ailments such as glaucoma, post-traumatic stress disorder and the side effects of chemotherapy.
Joaquin Concepcion, father of Joaquin Castro Concepcion II, also known as Savage K, said marijuana provided relief to his son during a battle against stage four gastric cancer -- a battle the younger man lost in July.

Concepcion said his son endured 34 excruciating treatments of chemotherapy in Washington state.
"It's the price you have to pay to prolong your life," he said.

Concepcion said marijuana helped alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy.

Debbie Quinata, 60, of Umatac placed a row of orange prescription bottles on the public hearing table.

"The amount of drugs I have to take because I have no other option are deadly," Quinata said, noting that she is prescribed medicine for her medical condition and more medicine to address side effects.
She said marijuana would offer an alternative to the medication she's already taking.

She said the drug should be controlled, just as alcohol is, but she didn't want to be considered a criminal for using a substance that would relieve the symptoms occurring as a result of other medication.

After the public hearing, Attorney General Leonardo Rapadas said in a release that possession and use of an ounce or less of the drug has essentially been decriminalized for 20 years on Guam.

He said the evidence for and against the issue should be presented without emotion when new policy is being considered.


Legalizing Marijuana up for discussion
Gaynor Dumat-ol Daleno
Pacific Daily News

The issue of whether to legalize marijuana on Guam could be introduced as a bill or put before Guam's voters as an initiative, according to Sen. Tina Muña Barnes, whose office continues to receive public comment on the issue.

Barnes, D-Mangilao, last month introduced a legislative resolution "for the decriminalization of cannabis" so local law enforcement and the island's prison can focus more of their strained resources on murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault and other violent crimes.

The resolution also states it aims to "enhance individual, personal and political freedom and liberty."
A Sept. 11 public hearing on the resolution drew public comments in favor of allowing marijuana use for medical and quality-of-life reasons, for people dealing with prolonged ailments.

Assistant Minority Leader Sen. Chris Duenas, R-Sinajana, said discussion on the possibility of legalizing marijuana should be confined to medical use.

Duenas said he'd like to hear input from the medical community as the debate continues.
But while the discussion on the medical use of marijuana is worthwhile, Duenas said, the issue ranks within the "moderate-to-low" range on his list of pressing community priorities.

"There are more pressing matters in the community that we need to take care of," Duenas said.
Paying tax refunds on time and adequately funding and providing public education and public safety services rank higher on his list of priorities, Duenas said.

A resolution states the sentiments of the Legislature, but it isn't a bill or a law, and Barnes said some members of the island's medical community have said they won't provide official comment unless they see legislation introduced.

According to the island's attorney general, Guam's existing laws effectively decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana, requiring a fine instead of lengthy prison sentence.
Possession of an ounce or less of marijuana is considered a criminal violation and punishable by a $100 fine.

Simple possession of more than an ounce of marijuana is considered a petty misdemeanor punishable by no more than 60 days in prison and by a fine of no more than $500, the AG's office states.
In 18 states, along with the District of Columbia, medical marijuana is legal, the National Cancer Institute states.

Local and federal laws

If marijuana ever becomes legal on Guam for medical use, military veterans may find themselves in a tough position.

A Veterans Health Administration directive, issued in 2011 and which is in effect through 2016, states "laws authorizing the use of Schedule I drugs, such as marijuana, even when characterized as medicine, are contrary to federal law," and there are criminal penalties associated with production, distribution and possession.

Barnes said she introduced the resolution as a "facilitator" to stir public discussion.
She said a military veteran had asked if she could help ease the pain of former military personnel suffering from the trauma of a war zone.

Friday, September 27, 2013

Sakman Fundraiser


THE SAKMAN: The Chamorros owned and built the sakmans, also known as the “flying proa”. It was their largest sailing canoe. It was deeply admired for its speed and agility. Its special asymmetric design attributed to its performance. It is a remarkable pure-blooded Chamorro invention for which they were proud of.


—The SAKMAN: the largest sailing single outrigger type canoe. 40 ft long with sail; 30 in wide; and stood 6 ft tall. The outrigger was 20 ft long.

— The GALAIDE: the smallest fishing dugout canoe measuring 10-12 ft long. Used primarily for in-reef fishing. No sail. Single outrigger. Used the paddle (poksai) and maneuvering pole (tulus).

DISCOVERY: When Magellan discovered the Marianas, he named the islands, “Islas de las Velas “ for the many sailing canoes that greeted him. He was fascinated by their agility and speed.

DESTRUCTION & END: Since the Spanish colonization, Chamorros were forbidden to build sailing canoes. All available canoes were destroyed. Chamorro canoe building era ended.

LAST SAKMAN: In 1742, British Commander George Anson captured the last available sakman off the Island of Tinian from which he produced a technical drawing complete with dimensional details. This is the only known technical description of the “flying proa” which we have today.

RESURRECTION OF CANOE BUILDING: Guam and Saipan are re-learning and re-tooling with the commitment of re-building the SAKMAN – our Chamorro Flying Proa. TASI - (Traditions About Seafaring Islands) and Sakman Chamorro, Inc., Saipan are collaborating with CHE’LU, Inc. to build and sail the “flying proa”.

Chamorro Fact Sheet by Mario Borja. Log blessing ceremony was held Aug. 15, 2009. Kudos to Mario & crew who painstakingly handcrafted the Sakman with pride and passion...and dankulu na Si Yu'us Ma'ase to everyone for your support.

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

The Historical Grey

Like anything, colonization is a complicated and contradictory process. But when looked back upon by people who wish it hadn’t happened or happened differently, it can take on an all-consuming and oppressive totality.

It was something that humiliated, subjugated and tortured a poor helpless people. The worse that you can make it sound, the more it seems to empower the need to seek redress or justice for what happened. History becomes then a list of bad things that happened and ways that the colonized peoples were victimized and marginalized. There can be obvious truth to this, but it tends to cast colonialism in a light that doesn’t ever really exist. Colonization becomes more unified and consistent than it really is. It moves towards feeling monolithic as its sins become more pronounced.

Take for example in Guam’s history, the Chamorro Spanish Wars. From this name alone it creates an image of Chamorro warriors fighting bravely against the Spanish invaders. Chamorros did fight bravely against the Spanish, but it was not a war of all against the invaders. For every Chamorro that did fight, there was another Chamorro that did not fight, hoping to remain above the fray, and for every two that did or didn’t fight there was probably one who decided to fight for the Spanish, defending them against other Chamorros.

The fighting in the Chamorro Spanish Wars goes on for 27 years, but the only real sustained long term fighting takes place in the 1670s. The rest of the time there are sporadic bursts of fighting, but most Chamorros simply wish to be left alone. What helps convince rebel Chamorros to stop fighting is when they can no longer effectively maintain the idea that the battle is truly “Hami kontra Siha.” The Spanish begin to reward those Chamorros who fight for them and turn in rebels, and this helps to sap the spirit of those who are trying to get rid of the Spanish. The advantage that we find in Hurao’s speech, “they are few, but we are many,” is no longer true. Yes, the Spanish presence, which is some priests, assistants Filipino and Latin American soldiers is small compared to the total amount of Chamorros. But by the 1670’s, they had enough loyal Chamorro converts that they were the ones leading the charge in razing villages and hunting down recalcitrant Chamorros. The last openly resistant village in the 1670’s, Hånom falls because of the instrumental role that Chamorro converts from a village further south along the coast play in attacking it.

As much as it might pain me to admit sometimes, there were plenty of Chamorros who sided with the Spanish, and some may have done so because of fear, but I’m sure quite a few did because they actually believed in the new religion. This is what agency in history actually means. It is not giving agency to those who were denied it before, and not only giving it to those who you might want to have it. It means acknowledging it wherever it probably existed. The fact that many Chamorros may have converted because they truly believed is actually more powerful than anything else. In the midst of so many apologists who want to try to imagine that this war was not one of force, intimidation and terror, they miss out on celebrating the Chamorros that willingly converted, which is the way the religion was supposed to work. So many people, because of the nature of how history unfolds want to make excuses for things they are clearly inexcusable, and therefore miss this point. They are too busy trying to make the sins committed against those who resisted seem less sinful, they forget to celebrate the few, the brave, and the faithful who came willingly usually because of some miracle or some epiphany.  

Now the creation of a gray area doesn’t do as much as people think it does. The fact that some Chamorro agreed with the new regime and wanted the new regime to take over their island doesn’t mean that it was right to do so. It is interesting how often people align the “rightness” of history not with anything dealing with morality or justice or truth, but rather with how well you fit within what eventually happened. Within the context of the time, Chamorros such as Kepuha, Hineti and Ayihi would be considered for the most part to be traitors or people who had betrayed the lands and rights of their relatives over to those they saw as the new masters.

Now to the victors they were the most faithful, the most upright, the most loyal and the best of what Chamorros had the offer the holy universe. It is important to remember that the historical aura that is placed around figures like these comes from the conjuring of those who wrote the accounts. They praise the Chamorros who defended them and obeyed them and decry and hate those who resisted. Ayihi for example is talked about as a true leader of the people, but all we do know is that the Spanish attempted to offer Ayihi as a counter to the populist heroic figure of Agualin. Ayihi’s support may have been more forced or fantastical than anything, but if you believe the accounts he had an alliance of villages standing behind him.

But in any analysis that wants to purport to represent anything close to the truth, they may have been on the “right” side of history in terms of power, but they were definitely on the wrong side of history in terms of everything else. The event was already a tragedy, the greyness doesn’t make it less of a tragedy but more of one. It means that it was not something where you can pick simple winners or losers. But the problem is that people often use that fact to someone imply that you can’t therefore differentiate between right or wrong.

In terms of colonization, there are always examples of resistance, accommodation and adaptation and the story of Chamorros is no different. There is a strength in those who openly and fiercely resist, but there is also a strength in those who survive and endure. Chamorros looking back at their history feel compelled to choose between these two means of self-definition and self-preservation.

In the 2012 Marianas History conference, Robert Underwood’s keynote speech touched on one such dynamic. He referred to it as “leapfrogging” through history. He lamented how younger Chamorros, those he referred to as historical avengers, leap frog their way through our history looking for those who fit their ideological position. So Chamorros wanting to connected to their roots today, don’t bother with all those Chamorros that lived during the colonial periods. Instead they reach all the way back to ancient times, to mythical warriors of the times long past, to the fiery chiefs like Agualin and Mata’pang who battled the Spanish and literally gave their lives for their people.

Underwood prefers to celebrate those who we are more culturally and temporally connected to. Our grandparents and great-grandparents who from our perspective today lived in more complicated and less politically pure moments in history and therefore don’t make good figures for us to aspire to. When you look at the Chamorros of the prewar American period and the Spanish period, you find there is a toughness, a minesngon, but you will also find a detachment from the sovereignty of the island and the formal sovereignty over even their own lives.

But here are the two poles that we have to choose from. Those who fight openly and aggressively and those who suffer quietly but do not necessarily give up. Each plays a role in creating who we are today.

Monday, September 23, 2013

Mistrusting the Bomb

US nearly detonated atomic bomb over North Carolina – secret document

Exclusive: Journalist uses Freedom of Information Act to disclose 1961 accident in which one switch averted catastrophe
by Ed Pilkington
The Guardian/UK

A secret document, published in declassified form for the first time by the Guardian today, reveals that the US Air Force came dramatically close to detonating an atom bomb over North Carolina that would have been 260 times more powerful than the device that devastated Hiroshima.

The document, obtained by the investigative journalist Eric Schlosser under the Freedom of Information Act, gives the first conclusive evidence that the US was narrowly spared a disaster of monumental proportions when two Mark 39 hydrogen bombs were accidentally dropped over Goldsboro, North Carolina on 23 January 1961. The bombs fell to earth after a B-52 bomber broke up in mid-air, and one of the devices behaved precisely as a nuclear weapon was designed to behave in warfare: its parachute opened, its trigger mechanisms engaged, and only one low-voltage switch prevented untold carnage.

Each bomb carried a payload of 4 megatons – the equivalent of 4 million tons of TNT explosive. Had the device detonated, lethal fallout could have been deposited over Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia and as far north as New York city – putting millions of lives at risk.

Though there has been persistent speculation about how narrow the Goldsboro escape was, the US government has repeatedly publicly denied that its nuclear arsenal has ever put Americans' lives in jeopardy through safety flaws. But in the newly-published document, a senior engineer in the Sandia national laboratories responsible for the mechanical safety of nuclear weapons concludes that "one simple, dynamo-technology, low voltage switch stood between the United States and a major catastrophe".

Writing eight years after the accident, Parker F Jones found that the bombs that dropped over North Carolina, just three days after John F Kennedy made his inaugural address as president, were inadequate in their safety controls and that the final switch that prevented disaster could easily have been shorted by an electrical jolt, leading to a nuclear burst. "It would have been bad news – in spades," he wrote.

Jones dryly entitled his secret report "Goldsboro Revisited or: How I learned to Mistrust the H-Bomb" – a quip on Stanley Kubrick's 1964 satirical film about nuclear holocaust, Dr Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb.

The accident happened when a B-52 bomber got into trouble, having embarked from Seymour Johnson Air Force base in Goldsboro for a routine flight along the East Coast. As it went into a tailspin, the hydrogen bombs it was carrying became separated. One fell into a field near Faro, North Carolina, its parachute draped in the branches of a tree; the other plummeted into a meadow off Big Daddy's Road.

Jones found that of the four safety mechanisms in the Faro bomb, designed to prevent unintended detonation, three failed to operate properly. When the bomb hit the ground, a firing signal was sent to the nuclear core of the device, and it was only that final, highly vulnerable switch that averted calamity. "The MK 39 Mod 2 bomb did not possess adequate safety for the airborne alert role in the B-52," Jones concludes.

The document was uncovered by Schlosser as part of his research into his new book on the nuclear arms race, Command and Control. Using freedom of information, he discovered that at least 700 "significant" accidents and incidents involving 1,250 nuclear weapons were recorded between 1950 and 1968 alone.

"The US government has consistently tried to withhold information from the American people in order to prevent questions being asked about our nuclear weapons policy," he said. "We were told there was no possibility of these weapons accidentally detonating, yet here's one that very nearly did."

Sunday, September 22, 2013

The Life and Death of an Adjunct

Woman Who Taught At College For Decades Dies Making Reportedly Less Than $25,000 A Year

The Huffington Post  |  By Posted:   |  Updated: 09/19/2013 6:10 pm EDT
An op-ed went viral Wednesday, in which the last days of Duquesne University adjunct instructor Margaret Mary Vojtko were described as emblematic of the plight of part-time contract faculty. But the college where she taught says that depiction is far from the truth. 

Daniel Kovalik, senior associate general counsel for the United Steelworkers union, wrote in a Pittsburgh Post-Gazette column that he was likely the last person to speak to Vojtko prior to her death. Although Vojtko had taught at Duquesne for more than 20 years, Kovalik said that she only earned around $3,500 per three-credit course at the private Catholic university. 

As Kovalik describes it, Vojtko was not making enough to get by -- less than $25,000 annually, with no health care benefits -- and her class-load was reduced while she was battling cancer. Then the university let her go in the spring

Kovalik wrote:
On Aug. 16, I received a call from a very upset Margaret Mary. She told me that she was under an incredible amount of stress. She was receiving radiation therapy for the cancer that had just returned to her, she was living nearly homeless because she could not afford the upkeep on her home, which was literally falling in on itself, and now, she explained, she had received another indignity -- a letter from Adult Protective Services telling her that someone had referred her case to them saying that she needed assistance in taking care of herself. The letter said that if she did not meet with the caseworker the following Monday, her case would be turned over to Orphans' Court.
Vojtko died at age 83 on Sept. 1, two weeks after a heart attack, Kovalik wrote. 

"I was incredulous after reading Daniel Kovalik's op-ed piece about Margaret Mary Vojtko," said Rev. Daniel Walsh, the Duquesne chaplain and director of campus ministry, in a statement. "I knew Margaret Mary well. When we learned of problems with her home, she was invited to live with us in the formation community at Laval House on campus, where she resided for several weeks over the past year. Over the course of Margaret Mary's illness I, along with other Spiritan priests, visited with her regularly."

But Walsh also criticized Kovalik's version of the article, adding that his "use of an unfortunate death to serve an alternative agenda is sadly exploitive, and is made worse because his description of the circumstances bears no resemblance to reality."

John Plante, vice president for university advancement, emailed the campus disputing the article, and insisted that school officials tried to help Vojtko in her "last trying days." Plante said individuals familiar with the situation "recognized this op-ed as a reckless attempt to use Margaret Mary Vojtko's death as a means to further the self-interest of Mr. Kovalik's external organization."
Plante said in his email:
These individuals have expressed both outrage and sadness that Margaret Mary has been used in this way. Then there are those with no direct knowledge of the actual circumstances. They have also expressed outrage, using social media to attack Duquesne based on their acceptance of Mr. Kovalik's published mischaracterizations. Our defense is the truth. Mr. Kovalik has tried to frame this as an issue of human resources policy, but he is wrong. The support provided and offered to Margaret Mary Vojtko was broad, involving the Spiritan community, student housing, EAP, campus police, facilities management, and her faculty and staff colleagues. It was wholly unrelated to her employment status or classification, or to any issues of adjunct unionization.
Kovalik's union has worked to unionize adjuncts at Duquesne, but he said the university "fought unionization, claiming that it should have a religious exemption. Duquesne has claimed that the unionization of adjuncts like Margaret Mary would somehow interfere with its mission to inculcate Catholic values among its students."

Adjunct instructors make up the majority of faculty nationwide, in a trend away from the dominance tenured professors claimed 30 years ago. Most adjuncts are not unionized and few receive benefits. Colleges nationwide are increasingly curtailing adjunct hour workloads to avoid providing health care as required under the Affordable Care Act, a shift that has added heat to the debate over part-time professor pay and unionization. 

The portion of Kovalik's story highlighting low adjunct pay has struck a chord with other instructors online, who Inside Higher Ed writes began sharing the story on listservs and social media with the hashtag #iammargaretmary.

Kovalik pushed back on the response from Duquesne officials, telling Inside Higher Ed that Vojtko needed a real salary, not just "intermittent charity and prayers," and that the university is "not really disputing my account at all."

Robin J. Sowards, an adjunct instructor at Duquesne, told the Chronicle of Higher Education that Kovalik's account of Vojtko's situation rings true for many non-tenured part-time faculty. (The Chronicle notes that Sowards is a member of the United Steelworkers-affiliated bargaining unit the Adjunct Faculty Association, which Duquesne's adjuncts voted to form a year ago.)

"The situation, in the long term, is what a lot of us ultimately face," Sowards said. "When your employer is done with you, you get tossed to the curb."


Death of An Adjunct, Or Why We (Still) Need Unions

by Abby Zimet

Margaret Mary Vojtko, 83, died a few weeks ago. Almost destitute, she had been struggling to live on under $10,000 a year, undergoing cancer treatment without health insurance, working a night shift at Eat 'n Park as a second job, sometimes sleeping in an office because she couldn't afford to fix her furnace or pay for her electricity, distraught when her regular job's hours were cut with no severance or retirement and, finally, ignobly, buried in a cardboard casket without handles - that, despite having taught French for 25 years at Pittsburgh's Duquesne University, a Catholic school whose mission is to "serve God by serving students...through commitment to excellence in education...profound concern for moral and spiritual values and service to the Church (and) the community. Duquesne is also one of three Catholic schools now fighting a union battle - in its case, appealing last year's 50-9 vote by adjunct professors to join an Adjunct Faculty Association of the United Steelworkers.

Adjunct - non-tenured and often part-time - professors make up over half of all university faculty nationwide. Those million or so "throwaway citizens," making  Mcwages that equal about a third of their tenured colleagues, get no health care or other benefits, have no job security and often take second jobs - for one, stacking shelves at Trader Joe's - to make ends meet. Increasingly, they are looking to unionize, and being fought every step of the way by well-paid administrators of lush  colleges charging inflated tuitions. Although Duquesne had initially agreed to abide by the results of their union election, they later appealed to the NLRB, arguing its status as a "religious" school should exempt it - thus arguing, notes one critic, that it's too Catholic for government rules but not Catholic enough to follow its own teachings.

After Vojtko died, responding to criticism of how the school had treated her,  Duquesne's Chaplain said that the school had invited her to live in one of their communities, and priests regularly visited and prayed with her. In other words, notes a union lawyer who wrote an impassioned op-ed about her life and death, “In lieu of a living wage and benefits, they offered her intermittent charity and prayers as a salve to her impoverishment.”

“Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels... For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink...I was a stranger and you did not invite me in...Truly I tell you, whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for me.’ - Matthew 25:31-46

Friday, September 20, 2013


-->This semester I am teaching Chamorro Language at UOG for the first team ever. I've taught classes for years in the community, but these are my first official college level classes. I am having lots of fun, even though it is alot of work since I am starting from scratch in many ways. Each week I put together my own handouts with vocab lists and grammar lessons. This past week we went through opposites such as "dikike'" and "dangkolu" or "taianao" and "dangge" and also occupations such as the Chamorro words for judge, runner, lover, thief and soldier. Chamorro occupations is an interest mix because it breaks down to certain words that are borrowed from the Spanish, such as "hues" or "peskadot" that means "judge" and "hunter." There are also older Chamorro terms such as "fafalagu" and "a'afulo'" which means "runner" and "wrestler." Then there are plenty of terms where you could say it in a Chamorro way, a Spanish way or a hybrid way. For example, you can say ma'estro or fafana'gue to mean teacher. But you can also say "kakanta" or "kantot" to mean singer. "Kakanta" comes from the Chamorro grammatical means for indicating someone who does something. You take the first syllable and reduplicate it and stress the reduplicated syllable. Kakanta comes from the Spanish word "kanta" but it is a Chamorro way of morphing the term. 

The week before we went over the phrase "hafa tatatmanu hao?" which means "how are you doing?"

When I first took Chamorro language at UOG, my professor was Peter Onedera. He was a master of lists for Chamorro words. His reader for the class had long lists for everything, including two pages on how to say various holidays in Chamorro. One list he had, which I incorporated into my class is about how to respond to the phrase "hafa tatatmanu hao?" When someone asks you, "hafa tatatmanu hao? most people respond, "maolek" or "maolek ha'." But Onedera listed a bunch of creative ways to respond to the question, including plenty of slang phrases. The list was fun and informative since it showed some cute, some deep and some practical aspects of the language.

I've included below some of the answers that you can give if someone asks you that questions. The "todu" of course makes it so that you answer carries the weight of saying that "everything" is like this.


Todu maolek            Everything is good
Todu båba                 Everything is bad
Todu magof               Everything is pleasant
Todu triste                Everything is sad
Todu mafñot            Everything is solid
Todu kallo                 Everything is flowing
Todu kåyos               Everything is kinda rough
Todu makaka           Everything is a bit off
Todu kaduku           Everything is nuts
Todu chunge’           Everything is gray
Todu palu                 Everything is so-so
Todu machalapon  Everything is all over the place
Todu måffak            Everything is going to hell              
Todu ñateng            Everything is going slowly
Todu dichu kichu   Everything is fishy
Todu paire               Everything is slamming
Todu mappot          Everything is tough
Todu mata’pang     Everything is boring
Todu mutong          Everything stinks

Mattochihu              Life is way too much

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Hinekka' i Tiningo' i Manamko'

UOG Launches Oral History Project to Collect Chamorro Stories
Elders are being asked to share their stories for project and museum

FOR RELEASE, September 17, 2013 – As part of its mission to perpetuate and promote the Chamorro language and culture, the University of Guam is embarking on an oral history project focused collecting traditional Chamorro knowledge. The project is entitled, Hinekka’ i Tiningo’ i Manåmko’ which translates to, “The collection of the knowledge of the elders.” It is being coordinated by the Chamorro Studies Program and is tied to the development of the Guam Museum.
Historian Michael Lujan Bevacqua, Ph.D. and writer Victoria-Lola Leon Guerrero, MFA are working on the writing for the Guam Museum, and are conducting this oral history project. Their goal is to ensure that the voices and knowledge of our elders, particularly in relation to the complexities and creativity of the Chamorro language, are not lost.

Leon Guerrero will be leading efforts to interview elders and record their knowledge about Chamorro songs, jokes, children’s stories and sayings. She will also document their experiences around aspects of recent Guam history that have yet to receive adequate attention by historians. These stories will be used to inform the writing for the Guam Museum and to develop Chamorro resources for the Chamorro Studies Program, including future presentations and publications.

As UOG President Robert Underwood states, “The Chamorro Studies Program at UOG is based on the principle that knowledge does not reside in the university or in its faculty, but rather in the community. The purpose of the University is to help preserve that knowledge, but not to take ownership over it. It belongs to the community. Through the Chamorro Studies program, UOG can play an important role in protecting that knowledge and helping to ensure that the general public continues to have access to it.”

Chamorros interested in sharing their stories for this project are encouraged to contact Michael Lujan Bevacqua, Ph.D. at the UOG Division of Humanities at (671) 735-2800 or email

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

The Unspoken Chamorro Rules

Earlier this week the letter to the editor that I have pasted below appeared in the PDN. Titled "Some of the unspoken Chamorro rules" it was written by Adolf Sgambelluri and purported to give a clear picture of why Chamorros are so messed up. People familiar with liberal/conservative discourse in the United States might immediately recognize the framework that this was written in. It is a standard conservative screed that appears on chain letters and messages boards, just with some changes to make it more "local" and attack Chamorros, and in some ways combine the problems of Chamorros with the problems of liberalism. For Sgambelluri, a conservative to attack liberals makes sense. But as a Chamorro, his attacks are a bit more confusing. The core of this discursive attack is the attempt to make liberals/Chamorros the source of all the problems in a society, and to implicitly offer conservative Americanism as the solution. 

 This type of self-loathing should be familiar to most Chamorros. We see so many examples of it around us in the media, in our families, in our history. Every culture will have examples of this, but in a Chamorro context it is a colonial sort of loathing. It is a dynamic where the things that the colonizer has said about us, we take as the truths about ourselves. By accepting that truth, we don't only take that one drop of knowledge, but start to integrate ourselves into an entire web of power relations, most of which place us and what we represent at the bottom, and what the colonizer and what he represents at the top. The quote superimposed on the image above is one such example. It comes from a Naval Governor before World War II, and it is something that Chamorros, even up until today have come to accept as the truth of themselves. 

Included below is the response by Peter Onedera. If the Chamorro language survives for another 4,000 years it will be because of people like Peter Onedera, who faithfully use it and employ it and are always expanding its horizons.


Some of the unspoken Chamorro rules

Sep. 12, 2013   |  
There may be no official rule book for being a Chamorro, but that doesn't mean there aren't rules. In fact the idea came from a columnist John Hawkins. There are actually quite a few rules Chamorro go by and the more politically active Chamorros become, the more rigidly they tend to stick to their own code of behavior.

These rules, most of which are unspoken, are passed along culturally and viciously enforced. Often times they have adhered to their way of spelling words for Chamorro.

Ironically, many Chamorro could not explain these rules to you and don't even consciously know they're following them. So, by reading this article, not only will you gain a better understanding of the Chamorro, you'll know them better than they know themselves in some ways.

• First, you justify your beliefs about yourself by your status as a Chamorro, not your deeds. By the way, Chamorro is not a race but a bastardized mixed of just about all ethnicity in the Marianas island chain. The most sexist Chamorro can think of himself as a feminist while the greediest Chamorro can think of himself as generous: "chenchule' this and chenchule' that!"

In the vernacular the word means gifts or donations, which is very much in vogue during special events. This is because Chamorro define themselves as being compassionate, open minded, kind, pro-science and intelligent -- not based on their actions or achievements, but based on their ideology. This is one of the most psychologically appealing aspects of liberalism because it allows you to be an awful person while still thinking of yourself as better than everyone else.

• What Chamorros like should be mandatory and what they don't like should be banned. There's an almost instinctual form of fascism that runs through most Chamorro. It's not enough for Chamorros to love gay marriage; everyone must be forced to love gay marriage. It's not enough for Chamorros to be afraid of guns; guns have to be banned. It's not enough for Chamorros to want to use energy-saving light bulbs; incandescent light bulbs must be banned.

• The past is always inferior to the present: Chamorros tend to view traditions, policies and morals of past generations as arbitrary designs put in place by less enlightened people. Because of this, Chamorros don't pay much attention to why traditions developed or wonder about possible ramifications of their social engineering. ... It's like an architect ripping out the foundation of a house without questioning the consequences and if the living room falls in on itself as a result, he concludes that means he needs to make even more changes.

• Chamorros believe in indiscriminateness for thought. This one was so good that we borrowed it from another columnist, Evan Sayet: "Indiscriminate of thought does not lead to indiscriminate of policy." It leads the modern Chamorros to invariably side with evil over good, wrong over right and the behaviors that lead to failure over those that lead to success. Why? Very simply -- if nothing is to be recognized as better or worse, then anything else then success is de facto unjust. There is no explanation for success if nothing is better than anything else and, we find, the greater the success the greater the injustice.

• Intentions are much more important than results. Chamorros decide what programs to support based on whether they make them feel good or bad about themselves, not because they work or don't work. After World War II, a DDT ban that killed some locals is judged a success by Chamorros because it makes them feel as if they care about the environment.

• The only real sins are helping conservatism or harming Guam Chamorro locals. Conservatives often marvel at the fact that Chamorros will happily elect every sort of pervert, deviant and criminal you can imagine without a second thought. That's because right and wrong don't come into the picture for Chamorros. They have one standard: Does this politician help or hurt my family? If a Chamorro politician helps the liberal Chamorros, he has a free pass to do almost anything, and many of them do just that.

• All solutions must be government-oriented. Chamorros may not be as down on the local government as conservatives are, but on some level, even they recognize that it doesn't work very well. So why are Chamorros so hell-bent on centralizing as much power as possible in local government? Simple, because they believe that they are better and smarter than everyone else by virtue of being Chamorros and centralized power gives them the opportunity to control more people's lives. There's nothing scarier to Chamorros than free people living their lives as they please without wanting or needing the local government to nanny them.

• You must be absolutely close-minded. One of the key reasons Chamorros spend so much time vilifying people they don't like and questioning their motivations is to protect themselves from having to consider their arguments. This helps create a completely closed system for Chamorros borrowed from the liberals mentality. Conservative arguments are considered wrong by default since they're conservative and not worth hearing.

• Feelings are more important to Chamorros than logic. Liberals base their positions on emotions, not facts and logic and then they work backwards to shore up their position. This is why it's a waste of time to try to convince a Chamorro of anything based on logic. You don't "logic" someone out of a position that he didn't use "logic" to come up with in the first place.

• Tribal/family affiliation is more important than individual action. There's one set of rules for members of the family and one set of rules for everyone else. Lying, breaking the rules or fomenting hatred against a liberal in good standing may be out of bounds, but there are no rules when dealing with outsiders, who are viewed either as potential recruits, dupes to be tricked, or foes to be defeated.
Adolf Peter Sgambelluri is a retired Marine, former Guam police chief and president of the Guam chapter of the National Association for Uniformed Services.


Ti hu tungo' na guaha taisinangan na areklamenton CHamoru

Sep. 17, 2013
Peter R. Onedera
Buente tåktamudu yu', taitiningo' yu', osino gaige i hinasso-ku gi i sanhiyong i titanos, lao ha hongngang yu' i Damenggo na luchan PDN put i taisinangan areklamenton CHamoru ya på'go na ma lakngos este na asunto, malago' yu' na ta na'guaha lugåt para ta hungok hinasso yan siñente ginen taotågues ni' umå'agang siha CHamoru.

Hu hanaoyi kåsi ocho na difirentes inetnon gi maloffan simåna, desde entieru yan lisåyu siha asta finattan åtte, metkao puengi, hunta siha, pinekkat yan feria ya lameggai kuentos manmalakngos put i lucha entre i CHamoru yan ayu i ti man CHamoru. Bula manengkubukao, guaha ti manmalago' manguentos, guaha mumenta i tai-guaiyayon i titige', yan guaha manlebbok ya ilek-ñiha na påchot ha' ta'lo put i kestumbren CHamoru.

Un taotao na afa'maolekon, ilek-ña, "estague' ta'lo un taifinakpo' ihemplo put un CHamoru ni' ha dispresia ta'lo CHamoru-ña."

Para guåhu, si Dudan Tomås yu' sa' ti siña na bai hu pega na taiguini yu' lokkue' tåtkumu ginen i ma tuge' put i CHamoru yan i dies na punto ni' ha pega ya hu kuestiona håfa rason na para u fångge' put este na asunto. Kao atburotao gui' na u tuge' este na lucha put para u takka' i asunto? Kao mampos i CHamoru siha taiguini annok na kostumbre guatu gi taotao sanhiyong ni' manmåtto mågi ya ni' unu gi iya hita tumungo' na ta na'a'annok este na kostumbre sin i tiningo'-ta?

Ha pega yu' este na hinasso gi dinida na bånda ya hu prupoponi na u ma ina este gi håfakao na hunta ni' u guaha deskutasion para i minaolek todu. Hu halåra mohon na ayu i taotågues ni' fumofotma i mamaila' na såkkan para Komferensian Hestorian Mari'ånas u konsedera na u ma na'guaha hunta para u ma deskuti este. Tåtkumu, u fanma agångi lokkue' CHamoru siha ginen Guåhan yan iya Notte Mari'ånas parehu ta'lo yan håyi ginen taotao sanlagu na Mañamoru kosaki u fanma lakngos hinasso yan siñente yan kao chilong yan i tinige' i titige'. Put mås, hu rikumenda na u ma kombida gui' ya guiya u ge'hilu'i i hunta ya ta fanma iduka mås.

Osino lokkue', nihi ya ta na'huyong este na asunto guatu gi i pupbleko sa' put i esta duru i kinalamten pulitikåt para finahan-botu yan i kinubren konsiensian CHamoru ni' manmambobota.

Entre todu, este ni' put inayek kandidåtu siha ni' siempre alos uttemo rumisutto gi primet ileksion gi mamaila' na såkkan, ta usa este na areklamenton taisinangan CHamoru para ta estudia kada kandidåtu ya ta li'e' kao a'nnok gi iya siha na ma tattitiyi i dies na areklamento.
Gi balan sais na areklo gaige na i CHamoru ya-ña manilihi sin håfa na hinasso maskeseha håyi na taotao achokha' kriminåt yan tramposu. Guaha estao finaisen ni' "kao u ayuda osino u na'dåñu i familiå-ku?" Maskeseha tåktamudu yu' lao mambobota yu' tåtkumu ayu i hu bobota para u cho'gue håfa ma nisisita u ma cho'gue para i islå-ta gi iya Guåhan. Nånalao, ti guåhu ha' guini na a'apas kontrebusion yan adu'åna yan ti guåhu ha' lokkue' na bebeta ya parehu yan i pumalu na taotågues, ha afekta yu' yan i familiå-ku i utilidåt, krima, setbision medikåt, sinafon pupbleko yan idukasion, yan pumalu siha.

Ti embidiosu yu' ni' ayu siha i manma ilihi para ufisinan pupbleko sa' estague' asigurao para kinahulo' enemigu siha yanggen ti ma fabot todu i pupbleko. Hu tungo' na makkat mampos cho'cho' pulitikåt ninungka na hu chagi gi un biåhi lao hu tungo' na mantaotao siha lokkue' i los prohimu siha.

Put uttemo, debidi i CHamoru u hasso kao magåhet i punto dies gi areklamento put aksion familia siha kontra aksion endebedu'åt. Nihi ya ta chagi este na areklo ya pues ta disidi kao efektibu yanggen ma usa.

Fa'na'an ginen i hagas na eskuela yu' sa' i hinengge-ku ni' kumahulo' yu' desdeki ma fañagu-hu asta i finatai-hu, memetgot ha' yan ti hu mimidi desde på'go ni' hu hago' i inamko'-hu.

Fuera di hu la'lå'yi i kredon i dies dinimåndan Yu'os ni' hu giha yu' tåtkumu Katoliku, hu tattiyi respetu para kosas, tåno', taotao yan manåmko'; inagofli'e' yan ninana'i para ayu i numisisita; mama'ihehemplo para i manhoben ni' para u ma tattiyi; siudadanon minaolek yan para u fila yan apåsi kontrebusion-hu tengnga, hu siente na lumå'la' yu' tåtkumu miche'cho' yan minina'huyong sin i taisinangan areklamenton CHamoru.

Hu tungo' put dinanche kontra linachi, minaolek kontra binaba yan hu praktitika i sesteman chenchule' gi kannai, setbisio, kosas yan salåppe'. Bula difekto-ku siha parehu yan pumalu ya maskeseha guaha ni' ti ya-hu siha gi maloffan hinasso-ku, hu tungo' put sinetsot yan inapas isao. Lao, yo'ase' yu', akomprendiyon yu', atbetton-hinasso yu', yan hu abiba todu bisita ni' manmåtto mågi gi i isla.

Hu tungo', desde hagas tåtte na tiempo, numa'suha siñente put taotao yanggen sahnge hinengge-ña, difirensiao lina'lå'-ña kontra iyo-ku, yan i kulot sensen-ña gof takpapa' gi fondon hinasso-ku ya hu sodda na gof maolek yu' put este. Akseptao yu' para håyi na taotao achokhå' taimanu lina'lå'-ña sa' ma sedi yu' na para bai hu unu yan noskuåntos na taotao sa' unu ha' guaha na mundo.

Måtto gi mampos CHamoru yu'. Ti CHamoru i apeyidu-hu, i hagå'-hu senmenos CHamoro maskeseha binaståtdon mesklao i CHamoru esta gi håfakao na råsa guini gi iya kadenan Mari'ånas, lao ti siña na bai hu sångan na engkubukao yu' put håyi yu'.

Hu tungo' håyi yu'. Yanggen manggai prublema i taotao put CHamoru-hu, pues prubleman-ñiha ennao. Hu tungo' ginen manu yu', taimånu kuma'hulo' yu' gi lina'lå-hu yan i hinanao-hu para mo'na. CHamoru yu'.


Related Posts with Thumbnails