Thursday, November 23, 2017

Resolution 294-34




“Tinestigu put Resolusion 294-34”
November 22, 2017
Michael Lujan Bevacqua

Buenas yan Håfa Adai, mansenådot yan mansenådores guini gi este na gefpå’go na ha’åni, pi’ot hågu Senadot San Nicolas. I na’ån-hu si Michael Lujan Bevacqua. Profesot yu’ gi Programan Inestudion Chamorro gi Unibetsedat Guåhan yan gehilo’ yu’ para i inetnon kumunidåt “Independent Guåhan.” Lao guini på’go gi me’nan-miyu ti hu kuentusisiyi ayu siha. Tumestitigu yu’ guini på’go komo un Chamorro yan taotao Guåhan.

Hu agrådesi i oppotunidåt para bai hu fata’chong guini på’go ya bai hu sangåni hamyo ni’ didide’ ginen i hinasso-ku put este na resolusion yan i meggai asunto ni’ pinapacha.  

Put resolusion 294-34, ti hu sapopotte gui’. Ya para bai hu na’klåru i pusision-hu put este na asunto gi este kuatro na punto:

Fine’nina: Gi tinituhon este na resolusion, guaha infotmasion put NEPA, i National Environmental Policy Act. Mafå’tinas este na lai para u na’siguro na i gubetnamenton Estådos Unidos ha respeta i guinahan i tano’ yan i taotao, ya ti ha na’dåñu i dos, ya todu tiempo ha espipiha i mas menos dañosu na inayek para maseha na kinahat. Maolek este na lai, i prublema guini, ti put i lai, lao put i militåt gi Estådos Unidos ya sesso ti ma tattiyi este na lai ya ti ma prutehi i guinahan i tano’ pat i taotao. 

Sen annok este na prublema anggen un konsidera na uno na abugao ni’ tumuge’ ayu na lai (NEPA) ha ayuda We Are Guåhan yan Guam Preservation Trust kumotte i militåt sa’ annok na ti ha tatitiyi i lai federåt. Guaha otro gurupu på’go ya ma kekekotte i militåt ta’lo.

Fihu hiningok-ta na i militåt i mas takhilo’ yan matua na a’adahi para i guinahan i tano’ pat i guinahan kinettura giya Guåhan. På’go i Dipattåmenton Dinifenden i Estådos Unidos ha na’guaguaha meggai na gi Fino’ Ingles “betde” na prugråma siha. Meggai na corporations yan otro gof dångkolo’ na institutions ma cho’cho’gue i parehu, este mafa’na’an “fina’betde” pat gi Fino’ Ingles “green-washing.”

Para hita guini giya Guåhan ta atan i sagan militåt ya sesso ilek-ta, “ai na ginasgas ayu na tåno’ militåt.” Ta atan i boniton cha’guan pat i mapenta maolek na guma’ siha, ta li’e’ na ti meggai na basula gi kanton chålan gi halom i sagan militåt, ya hinasso-ta na hunggan gof gasgas, gof “eco-friendly” i militåt, sa’ atan i pueston-ñiha.

Gi Fino’ Ingles sesso ma’usa este na sinangan “you can’t judge a book by its cover.” Gi Fino’ Chamorro ya-hu sumångan, “Mina’lak gi chalan, hinemhom gi gima’.” I ginasgas gi sanhilo’ fihu ha na’a’atok i inaplacha pat i binenu gi sanhalom. Meggai na inestudia yan inaligao madokumenta na gi minagahet i sagan militåt fihu i mas matatse pat macontaminated na lugåt siha. Siña ta li’e’ este guini gi islå-ta yan i meggai na lugåt ni’ mantinatse ni’ basulan toxic pat hazardous despues di i gera. Siña ta li’e’ este lokkue’ gi siniseden i sindalu-ta ni’ maninafekta ni’ båba yan tatatse na klasen materiåt annai maneståba gi militåt.

Segundo: Fihu hiningok-hu na gof meggai na taotao giya Guåhan pat i meggaiña na taotao giya Guåhan ma guaiya este na hinatsan i militåt, ma gof sapopotte i hinatsan i militåt. I gaseta, rediu yan telebikbik lokkue’ ma na’huhuyong este na infotmasion kulang este i mas takhilo’ na punto. Lao este na numero, i numero put kuantos petsento na taotao ya-ñiha na u magåhet este na buildup, didide’ ha’ i bali-ña gi este na diniskuti.

I asunto put hinatsan i militåt, ti un kompetasion taiguihi si Miss Earth Guam pat Miss Guam Earth. I asunton i buildup, ti un kompetasion taiguihi American Idol pat The Voice.

Para hamyo ni’ manmatata’chong guenao sa’ manmaililihi ni’ i taotao Guåhan, ti siña un giha maolek yan mo’na este na islå-ta anggen håfa i mas “popular” dumisiside håfa para en che’gue gi halom este na edifisio. Siña un konsidera i minalago’ pat i sinienten i taotao gi dinisiden-miyu, lao este un påtte ha. Debi di un tanteha este yan otro mas impottånte na infotmasion pat tiningo’.

Mås takhilo’ kinu i finaisen put kao popular pat masapotte, debi di en faisen maisa hamyo, kao maolek este na hinatsa para i isla? Kao guaha ebidiensia na siña gof maolek i hiniyong, i probecho? Komo un må’gas este na isla, debi di un giniha ni’ este na klasen tiningo’ yan infotmasion, ti uno numero ha’ gi survey.

Este chinalani yu’ para i otro na punto-ku.

Mina’tres: Gof annok ginen todu i inestudia put i buildup ya taimanu na inafekta i kumunidåt na guaha probecho yan guaha dåño’. I diferensia dipende månu esta i estaotao-mu gi kumunidåt, ko’lo’lo’ña put ekonomiha.

Anggen manakhilo’ hao, anggen riku hao pat mikepble, siempre meggai maolek na hiniyong para hågu gi un hinatsan i militåt. Sa’ esta sopblan salåpe’ gi bangko-mu, esta sopblan tåno’, sopblan guma’. I hinatsan i militåt un opotunidåt para un na’setbe ayu na sopblan guinaha para un famå’tinas mas salåpe’.

Lao anggen ti manakhilo’ hao, anggen middle class hao pat mas påpa’, anggen sesso chumatsaga hao put salåpe’, ti gof maolek i buildup para hågu. I hinatsan i numeron taotao gi isla, ko’lo’lo’ña anggen meggai gi ayu mas gaisalape’, pat manmasubisidized para i trastes-ñiha pat i ginima’-ñiha, ha ayuda humåtsa i prisu para todu i otro taotao, lao ti ha achahahatsa i suetdon-ñiha, lao siempre ha hahatsa i prison sumåsaga giya Guåhan, ko’lo’lo’ña put ginima’.

Debi di ta na’klåru este. Hunggan siña un sapotte i hinatsan i militåt, siña un sångan na maolek para i isla, lao debi di un na’klåru para håyi guini gi isla? Ti mismo para todu. Pues anggen un sångan na maole’lek kabåles para todus, siña ta alok na dinagi enao.

Bai hu mentiona guini lokkue’ na resolusion gof ti kabåles gi este na punto. Mana’hålom i infotmåsion put i nuebu na cho’cho’ pat salåpe’ lao taigue i numero put i nuebu na gåsto yan taigue lokkue’ i infotmasion put taimanu na i gobetnamenton Guåhan yan i taotao lokkue’ para u ma sungon ayu na hinatsan gåsto.

Mina’kuåtro: Lao malingu gi todu este na diniskuti i mas fundamento na asunto, i estao-ta pulitikåt.

Bai hu faisen hamyo este: Håfa i bali-ña na para ta sångan na “ya-ta este” pat “ta gof sapotte este” anggen manaipodet hit gi halom i sistema ni’ dumisiside este?

Håfa i setbe-ña todu este anggen manaigue hit gi todu i lamasa siha nai manmafå’tinas todu este na plånu?

Fihu manggonggong hit guini put i taya’ botu-ta para i ofisian presidente yan i taibotu na pusision para i kongreså-ta. Lao mas tahdong este na problema kinu i tinaigue-ña enao na dos na botu. Ti mammambobota hit lokkue’ para i atmirånte, i secretary para i Dinifenden i Estådos Unidos yan tåya’ rumepresesenta hit gi halom ayu na sen dångkolo’ na sisteman federåt. Lao ayu na sisteman ha gaganye kana’ trenta petsento gi todu i tano’ gi este na dikike’ na isla.

Maskeseha ilelek-mu na ya-mu i hinatsan i militåt pat ilelek-mu na ti ya-mu, debi di ta akonfotme na ti gof maolek esta na tåya’ direcho-ta pat tåya’ podet-ta gi i diniside para ayu na dångkolo’ na påtte gi tano’-ta. Ya annok lokkue’ para ayu ni’ tumatitiyi i iyo-ña Tweets si Donald Trump, na i bidan-ñiñiha yan i daño’ i militåt yan i gobetnamenton Estådos Unidos, machuchuda’ gi hilo’ yan gi papa’ i kellåt-ñiha.

Para Guahu, debi di ta tulaika i estao-ta pulitikat. Debi di ta tutuhon gi ayu na barangka yan makkat na chålan asta decolonization yan dinitetminan maisa.


Si Yu’us Ma’åse.


Sunday, November 19, 2017

ChaNoWriMo 2017

This November I am once again participating in ChaNoWriMo or as its known elsewhere as NaNoWriMo, National Novel Writing Month or Chamorro Novel Writing Month. This means that this blog sadly will not be receiving much attention. During this month, the challenge is to write 50,000 words of your novel.

For me, I am continuing my long-standing story titled "The Legend of the Chamurai." I first started it in 2011 and I've been writing parts of it every November since then.

The story so far has spanned over 500 years and a host of characters. It has spanned from the world of the dead, to Okinawa and Taiwan, to the Caroline Islands and to the northern islands of the Marianas. At present, I am writing sections of a great challenge that involves a unique or mysterious task on each of the Marianas Islands. Three champions sailing up the island chain, fighting monsters or finding artifacts on each island. Very fun, getting to use different aspects of the islands to come up with interesting tasks or labors.

Despensa yu' ta'lo.

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Adventures in Chamorro #4

On Facebook I have a regular informal series titled "Adventures in Chamorro." It ranges from stories of speaking Chamorro with my kids, protests, decolonization activism and also teaching Chamorro at UOG. I have not been on a hike in quite a while and so here are two stories dealing with hiking and my students at UOG.

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Adventures in Chamorro #234: For my Chamorro language classes I often have them write up some simple love poetry. I normally begin those assignments by talking about most elderly Chamorros refer to as traditional Chamorro courtship rituals. As Spanish Catholic influence made it very difficult for young unmarried men and women to interact with each other romantically, so much of the courtship happened in secret or through intermediaries known as "chule'guagua'" or "basket carriers." It was a time of early-morning meetings down by the riverbank, sneaking away to the blindspots behind churches or nights filled with young men, prowling around homes hoping to get the attention of their beloveds sleeping within. Sometimes these stories ended with the families approving the union, sometimes they did not. Students usually remark how different things are today, although one or two makes a connection with the "drama" in relationships today, joking that we still find Chamorro men lurking around homes, although usually for ekgo' related reasons. Here is one of my favorite poems by a student writing in that theme.

Gaige hao gi fi’on-ña på’go
Humåhanao mo’na gi kareran-miyu
Lao gagaige ha’ hao gi halom i korason-hu
Hu guaiya hao
Lao mabokbok i ante-ku
Annai un yute’ yu’
Gagaige ha’ hao gi halom i hinasso-ku
Yan gaige yu’ på’go gi hiyong i gima’-mu

Adventures in Chamorro #207: I recently took my Chamorro classes on a hike to Pågat. For those who couldn't make it, they could be excused if they wrote, in Chamorro, a poem or a reflection paper on the beauty or the importance of the location. Here is an example of a poem which was started by a CM101 student, and then when I shared with with a CM102 student, he added in some extra, humorous details.

Hu hungok na gof bonito i sengsong Pågat.
Ti siña humånao yu’ para Pågat sa’ macho’cho’cho’ yu’.
Bula antigun na latte giya Pågat.
Guaha paopao na flores giya Pågat.
Guaha binådu siha giya Pågat.
Guaha mikulot na guihan gi tasi giya Pågat.
Guaha yommok na babui siha giya Pågat.
Hu hungok na guaha meggai na bubulao na kulepbla siha giya Pågat.
Ti ya-hu kulepbla siha!
Ti malago’ yu’ humånao para Pågat.
Ma’å’ñao yu’ umbee.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

On Assignment

When I am writing or working, I like to have MSNBC playing in the background. Although definitely not on weekends, as I don't find their barrage of prison reality TV shows very appealing. On weekends I watch clips on Youtube and recently they started a new show with longtime foreign affairs and war correspondent Richard Engel called On Assignment with Richard Engel. 

I've enjoyed the first few pieces released on Youtube on his show. They've both been critical of Trump and talked about the international dimensions to his business connections. This is one of the things that makes Trump different from previous Presidents, even those who were also wealthy, his international business empire that he is absolutely using the powers and privileges of the off to enrich and enhance. Here's a few of the clips from On Assignment:

 

Monday, November 06, 2017

Independent Guåhan Teach-Ins for November




Independent Guåhan to hold Teach-Ins in November, to provide updates on Catalonia and a panel on inter-generational activism

Each month Independent Guåhan (IG) holds a Teach-In at the University of Guam aimed at informing the island community about pertinent issues related to Guåhan’s political status and decolonization. This month IG will be holding two Teach-Ins, the first on November 9th focusing on recent updates on the movement for independence and Catalonia, and the second on November 16th, which will focus on inter-generational Chamorro activism. Both Teach-Ins will take place from 6:00 PM – 7:30 PM at UOG Humanities and Social Sciences Building (HSS) Room 106. They are free and open to the public.

The November 9th Teach-In is titled “Som Una Nacio, Nosaltres Decidim: Updates on Catalan Independence.” Long-standing desires amongst the people of Catalonia, Spain for greater autonomy has taken concrete form in recent months. Following violent crackdowns over a referendum on Catalonia’s independence, where the overwhelming majority of voters elected to seek independence, the state declared itself independent last month. This has led to tension and Spain’s dissolution of the Catalan government. This Teach-In will focus on what lessons Guåhan in its own quest for decolonization might learn from recent events on the Iberian Peninsula.

The November 16th Teach-In is titled “Families for Justice: Generations of Chamorro Activists Tell Their Stories,” and co-sponsored by the group Prutehi Litekyan/Save Ritidian. Plans by the US military to place a firing range in the culturally and environmentally significant Litekyan area of Northern Guåhan has helped create a new wave of local community organizing. The emergence of the Prutehi Litekyan/Save Ritidian is closely tied to the work of Chamorro families who have taken up issues of land rights, demilitarization and decolonization and passed this obligation on from one generation to the next. This Teach-In will feature a panel of activists from three different families, the Garrido, Artero and Flores clans, each of which has spent generations protesting, pushing for land return or calling for Guåhan’s decolonization.























Wednesday, November 01, 2017

Adios Ojibwa Warrior

One of my first introductions to Native American Studies was the book Ojibwa Warrior: Dennis Banks and the Rise of the American Indian Movement. I was at that point in graduate school in San Diego, and learning a great deal about different ethnic movements around the United States, and while much of the readings focused on the larger groups in the United States, such as African Americans, Latinos and Asian Americans, I was grateful that each course had books or readings that situated Native American struggles and experiences as well. I knew the basic, general history of how Native Americans went from being a diverse array of tribes and peoples, to losing almost all their sovereignty and land to colonial settlers across North America and also Latin American depending on how you want to define the terms. But by reading this book and others by scholars and Native American activists I began to understand more of the structural and historical connections. In Banks' book he talked about cultural and linguistic repression, dispossession and land alienation, difficult experiences with military service, all of which should seem very familiar to Chamorros.

Dennis Banks passed away this week. Below is his obituary from the New York Times. 

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Dennis Banks, American Indian Civil Rights Leader, Dies at 80
by Robert McFadden
October 30, 2017
The New York Times

Dennis J. Banks, the militant Chippewa who founded the American Indian Movement in 1968 and led often-violent insurrections to protest the treatment of Native Americans and the nation’s history of injustices against its indigenous peoples, died on Sunday night at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. He was 80.

His daughter Tashina Banks Rama said the cause was complications of pneumonia following successful open-heart surgery a week ago at the clinic. Mr. Banks lived on the Leech Lake Reservation in northern Minnesota, where he was born and where he grew up.

Mr. Banks and his Oglala Sioux compatriot Russell Means were by the mid-1970s perhaps the nation’s best-known Native Americans since Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, who led the attack that crushed the cavalry forces of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in the Montana Territory in 1876.

Mr. Banks, whose early life of poverty, alcoholism and alienation mirrored the fates of countless ancestors, led protests that caused mass disorder, shootouts, deaths and grievous injuries. He was jailed for burglary and convicted of riot and assault, and he became a fugitive for nine years. He found sanctuary in California and New York but finally gave up and was imprisoned for 14 months.

He once led a six-day takeover of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, and mounted an armed 71-day occupation of the town of Wounded Knee, S.D., on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Wounded Knee was the scene of the last major conflict of the American Indian Wars, in which 350 Lakota men, women and children were massacred by United States troops in 1890.

While his protests won some government concessions and drew national attention and wide sympathy for the deplorable social and economic conditions of American Indians, Mr. Banks achieved few real improvements in the daily lives of millions of Native Americans, who live on reservations and in major cities and lag behind most fellow citizens in jobs, housing and education.

To admirers, Mr. Banks was a broad-chested champion of native pride. With dark, piercing eyes, high cheekbones, a jutting chin and long raven hair, he was a paladin who defied authority and, in an era crowded with civil rights protests, spoke for the nation’s oldest minority.

To his critics, including many American Indians, Mr. Banks was a self-promoter, grabbing headlines and becoming a darling of politically liberal Hollywood stars like Jane Fonda and Marlon Brando. His severest detractors, including law-enforcement officials, said he let followers risk injury and arrest while he jumped bail to avoid a long prison sentence and did not surrender for nearly a decade.
Mr. Banks and Mr. Means first won national attention for declaring a “Day of Mourning” for Native Americans on Thanksgiving Day in 1970. Their band seized the ship Mayflower II, a replica of the original in Plymouth, Mass., and a televised confrontation between real Indians and costumed “Pilgrims” made the American Indian Movement leaders overnight heroes.

In 1972, the two organized cross-country car caravans on “Trails of Broken Treaties.” They converged on Washington with 500 followers to protest Indian living standards and lost treaty rights, occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs and held out for nearly a week, destroying documents and the premises, until the government agreed to discuss Indian grievances and review treaty commitments.
In 1973, after a white man killed an Indian in a saloon brawl and was charged not with murder but with involuntary manslaughter, Mr. Banks led 200 American Indian Movement protesters in a face-off with the police in Custer, S.D. It became a riot when the slain man’s mother was beaten by officers. After he left town, Mr. Banks, who said he had merely tried to ease tensions, was charged with assault and rioting.

It was the last straw. “We had reached a point in history where we could not tolerate the abuse any longer, where mothers could not tolerate the mistreatment that goes on on the reservations any longer, where they could not see another Indian youngster die,” he told the author Peter Matthiessen.

Weeks later, the siege that made Mr. Banks and Mr. Means famous across America began when 200 Oglala Lakota and A.I.M. followers with rifles and shotguns occupied Wounded Knee. About 300 United States marshals, F.B.I. agents and other law-enforcement officials cordoned off the area with armored cars and heavy weapons, touching off a 10-week battle of nerves and gunfire.

Amid wide news media coverage, the significance of the battlefield was not lost on many Americans. Dee Brown’s best-selling book “Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West” (1970) had recently explored the record of massacres and atrocities against Native Americans on the expanding frontier, undermining one of the nation’s fondest myths.

Proclaiming a willingness to die for their cause, Mr. Banks and Mr. Means demanded the ouster of Richard Wilson, the elected leader of the Oglala Sioux Tribal Council, whom they called a corrupt white man’s stooge. The government refused. Shootings punctuated the days of stalemate, leaving wounded on both sides. Two Indians were killed, and a federal agent was shot and paralyzed.
When it was over, Mr. Banks and Mr. Means were charged with assault and conspiracy. After a federal trial, with the defense raising historic and current Indian grievances, a judge dismissed the case for prosecutorial misconduct, including illegal wiretaps and evidence that had been tampered with.

By then, Mr. Banks was a pre-eminent spokesman for Native Americans. He mediated armed conflicts between Indians and the authorities in various states. But his own legal troubles were not over.

Charged with riot and assault with a deadly weapon for his role in the 1973 melee in Custer, he was found guilty in 1975. Facing up to 15 years in prison, he jumped bail and fled to California.
With 1.4 million signatures on a petition supporting Mr. Banks, Gov. Jerry Brown granted him asylum in 1976, rejecting extradition to South Dakota by saying his life might be in danger if he were sent back. Mr. Banks later became chancellor of Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University, a small two-year college for Indians in Davis, Calif.

Deprived of California sanctuary when Governor Brown was succeeded by a Republican, George Deukmejian, in early 1983, Mr. Banks found a new refuge on an Onondaga reservation near Syracuse. Federal officials said he would be arrested only if he left the reservation. But in 1984, weary of his confined life, he returned to South Dakota voluntarily and was sentenced to three years in prison.

Paroled in 1985 after serving only 14 months, he moved to the Pine Ridge Reservation to work as a drug addiction and alcoholism counselor. He also turned his life around, embracing sobriety, giving talks on public service and organizing cross-country events that he called Sacred Runs, which became popular among supporters of Native Americans in later years.

“We were the prophets, the messengers, the fire starters,” Mr. Banks said in an autobiography, “Ojibwa Warrior: Dennis Banks and the Rise of the American Indian Movement” (2005, with Richard Erdoes). “Wounded Knee awakened not only the conscience of all Native Americans, but also of white Americans nationwide.”

Dennis James Banks was born on the Leech Lake Reservation on April 12, 1937. He never knew his father. His mother abandoned him to his grandparents.

When he was 5, he was taken from his family and sent to a series of government schools for Indians that systematically denigrated his Ojibwa (Chippewa) culture, language and identity. He ran away often, until, at 17, he returned to Leech Lake.

Unable to find work, he joined the Air Force and was stationed in Japan, where he married a Japanese woman, had a child with her and went absent without leave. Arrested and returned to the United States, he never saw his wife or child again. After being discharged, he moved to Minneapolis, drifted into crime, was arrested in a burglary and went to jail for two and a half years.

Released in 1968, he founded the American Indian Movement with an Ojibwa he had met in prison, Clyde Bellecourt, and others to fight the oppression and endemic poverty of Native Americans. He became chairman and national director as the group, based in Minneapolis, forged alliances and grew rapidly. After two years it said it had 25,000 members.

Within a year A.I.M., with its flair for guerrilla tactics, joined a lengthy occupation of Alcatraz Island, the former federal prison site in San Francisco Bay.

After his fugitive years, Mr. Banks had a modest movie career. He had roles in Franc Roddam’s “War Party” (1988), Michael Apted’s “Thunderheart” (1992), Michael Mann’s “The Last of the Mohicans” (1992, with Russell Means), and Georgina Lightning’s “Older Than America” (2008), which explored the devastating effects of Indian boarding schools like those Mr. Banks had been forced to attend.
Mr. Banks also appeared in documentaries: “We Shall Remain, Part V: Wounded Knee” (2009), a Ric Burns “American Experience” television film directed by Stanley Nelson; “A Good Day to Die” (2010), directed by David Mueller and Lynn Salt; and “Nowa Cumig: The Drum Will Never Stop” (2011), directed by Marie-Michele Jasmin-Belisle.

Besides his wife and child in Japan, Mr. Banks had many children with other women. In addition to Ms. Banks Rama, he is survived by 19 children, 11 with the surname Banks: Janice, Darla, Deanna, Dennis, Red Elk, Tatanka, Minoh, Tokala, Tiopa, Tacanunpa and Arrow. The others are Glenda Roberts, Beverly Baribeau, Kevin Strong, D. J. Nelson-Banks, Bryan Graves, and Pearl, Denise and Kawlija Blanchard. Mr. Banks is also survived by more than 100 grandchildren, Ms. Banks Rama said.

Mr. Banks was the 2016 vice presidential nominee of the California Peace and Freedom Party, which identified itself as socialist and feminist. The party’s presidential candidate was Gloria La Riva. As a single-state ticket, they won 66,000 votes.

In recent years, Mr. Banks lived with some of his children in Kentucky and Minnesota. He was an honorary trustee of the Leech Lake Tribal College, a two-year public institution in Cass Lake, Minn. Mr. Means, who also appeared in movies and wrote a memoir, died on the Pine Ridge Reservation in 2012 at age 72.

In 1990, both men joined a ceremony at the Pine Ridge Reservation commemorating the centenary of the Wounded Knee massacre.

“Maybe we opened up some eyes, opened some doors,” Mr. Banks told The Los Angeles Times. “And it was at least an educational process here. Fifteen years ago, there was no newspaper here, no radio station. Now there’s more community control over education.”



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